Archived Document Notice: This document has been archived by the LDP because it does not apply to modern Linux systems. It is no longer being actively maintained.
Copyright Vincent Broman 1995. Permission granted to make and distribute copies of this HOWTO under the conditions of the GNU General Public License.
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While Vincent Broman first put together this HOWTO,
much of the information and text was obtained from FAQs,
READMEs, etc. written by Stephen Uhler, Michael Haardt,
and other public-spirited net-persons.
Email corrections and suggested changes to
Uhler was the main architect of MGR -- see the Credit section below.
MGR (ManaGeR) is a graphical window system. The MGR server provides a builtin window manager and windowed graphics terminal emulation on color and monochrome bitmap displays. MGR is controlled by mousing pop-up menus, by keyboard interaction, and by escape sequences written on pseudo-terminals by client software.
MGR provides each client window with: termcap-style terminal control functions, graphics primitives such as line and circle drawing; facilities for manipulating bitmaps, fonts, icons, and pop-up menus; commands to reshape and position windows; and a message passing facility enabling client programs to rendezvous and exchange messages. Client programs may ask to be informed when a change in the window system occurs, such as a reshaped window, a pushed mouse button, or a message sent from another client program. These changes are called events. MGR notifies a client program of an event by sending it an ASCII character string in a format specified by the client program. Existing applications can be integrated into the windowing environment without modification by having MGR imitate keystrokes in response to user defined menu selections or other events.
MGR currently runs on Linux, FreeBSD, Sun 3/4 workstations with SunOS, and Coherent. Various older versions of MGR run on the Macintosh, Atari ST MiNT, Xenix, 386-Minix, DEC 3100, and the 3b1 Unix-pc. Many small, industrial, real-time systems under OS9 or Lynx in Europe use (another variant of) Mgr for their user interface. The programming interface is implemented in C and in ELisp, although supporting clients written in other languages is quite easy.
Running MGR requires much less in resources than X, or even gcc. It does not have the user-base, software repertory, or high-level libraries of X or MS-Windows, say, but it is quite elegant and approachable.
It has been said that MGR is to X as Unix was to Multics.
MGR consists of a server with builtin window manager and terminal emulator, and clients which run in this terminal emulator and use it to communicate with the server. No resource multiplexing is done.
X11 consists of a server and clients, which usually connect to the server using a socket. All user visible things like terminal emulators, window managers etc are done using clients. No resource multiplexing is done.
8.5, the Plan 9 window system, is a resource multiplexer, as each
process running in a window can access
/dev/kbd in its own namespace. These are multiplexed to the
in the namespace of 8.5.
This approach allows one to run 8.5 in an 8.5 window,
a very clean design. 8.5 further has an integrated window manager
and terminal emulator.
The latest source distribution can be FTPed from the directory
or Mosaiced from
The same should be found at
ftp://sunsite.unc.edu/pub/Linux/apps/MGR and its mirrors.
Older versions of this distribution
from Haardt can be found on
tsx-11.mit.edu and perhaps elsewhere.
Pre-Linux versions of MGR from Uhler and others have been found at
ftp://bellcore.com/pub/mgr, but I think they are gone now.
I have saved a copy of everything about MGR seen on the Internet,
but I am not aware of anything weighty
that is missing from this Linux/Sun distribution.
MGR has been through a lot of versions and releases,
but the current *Linux* version number is 0.69. This version number
could jump to 1.0 when stable 256-color VGA code for Linux appears
(for more than one video card type).
RCS version numbers have increased from Bellcore's 4.3 up to our 4.13 now.
Required tools to build this distribution of MGR are m4 (GNU, or perhaps another supporting the -D option), make (GNU, or perhaps another supporting include) and *roff for the docs. Also sh, awk, and POSIX install. Binary distributions are not assembled often so you need an ANSI C compiler environment, e.g. gcc.
A Linux installation requires Linux 0.99.10 or better
(1.2.13 is what I actually test on now),
an HGC, EGA, VGA, or SVGA graphics card, and a mouse. Mouses supported
are: serial Microsoft mouse, serial MouseSystems 3 and 5 byte
mouse, serial MMSeries mouse, serial Logitech mouse, PS/2 mouse,
or a bus mouse.
With Buckey (Meta) hot keys enabled, even a mouseless system could
do a certain amount of useful work under MGR.
The VGA 640x480 monochrome graphics mode is
supported out of the box, as is 640x350 and 640x200. To run
800x600, or other modes that your BIOS can initialize and which
do not require bank-switching, you need to run a small program
under DOS or an emulator to read the VGA registers
and write a header file which you place in the
so that it can be
vga.c file there.
Samples of these files are supplied, but please create your own.
Some VGA cards can use 128k
windows, and these might run higher monochrome resolutions.
The Linux-colorport code also runs in the standard 320x200x256 color VGA mode without difficulty, because no bank switching is required. If you think of how few 64000 pixels is, you would realize this color mode is quite limited. Non-fast, but simple, bank-switching code has been added in version 0.65, and it works with a Tseng ET4000 card in 640x480x256 and 800x600x256 modes. The S3 code does not work in super VGA resolutions, yet. Supporting new super VGA cards requires writing one function to switch banks and then making sure that the desired screen mode can be initialized from a register dump, possibly with hand-tweaking. The Linux color servers generally mangle the screen fonts, necessitating use of restorefont as in runx. If someone were to extract the VGA initialization code out of X, this might make MGR work on a lot more color systems.
Suns with SunOS 4.1.2+ and
cgsix frame buffers are supported.
Their speed handling color is good.
Coherent installations should refer to the
Versions/README.Coh file in the source distribution.
latest-and-greatest MGR to another POSIX-like system which
select() and pty's and direct access to a bitmapped
frame-buffer ought to be straightforward, just implementing the
libbitblit library based on the
colorport code, say.
If you want to install everything, you need 7 MB disk space for binaries, fonts, manual pages etc. The sources are about 4.5 MB, plus object files during compilation.
/usr/mgr should be either the directory or a link to the
directory where you install MGR stuff for runtime use. Typing
cd /usr/mgr; tar xvfz whereveryouputit/mgrusr-0.69.tgz
will unpack these. The source can be put anywhere, e.g. typing
cd /usr/mgr; tar xvfz wherever/morefonts-0.69.tgz
to unpack the sources from
cd /usr/src/local/mgr; tar xvfz wherever/mgrsrc-0.69.tgz
The source tree can be compiled from one top-level Makefile which
invokes lower-level Makefiles, all of which "include"
at the top level. The
Configfile is created by an interactive sh
Configure, which asks you questions,
then runs m4 on a
So you type something like this:
chdir /usr/src/local/mgr sh ./Configure make first make depend make install make clean
It might be wise, before running make, to eyeball the
generated by the
Configure script, checking that it looks reasonable.
(At least one m4 poops out (Sun
creating a very short
If this happens, try hand editing a copy of
One can also
make all in any directory with a Makefile
as soon as the libraries have been compiled and installed.
The server, libraries, and some clients have been linted, but several
clients are K&R C code that generates many compiler warnings.
Several flags in MGRFLAGS can be added/omitted in the Configfile to change some optional features in the server, viz:
muck utmp file so "who" works
code for clicking the mouse in vi moving the cursor
enable debugging output selectable with -d options.
XOR the mouse track
for hot-key server commands without mousing
for priority window scheduling instead of round-robin; the active window gets higher priority
for cut/paste between windows and a global snarf buffer
forces window alignment for fast scrolling (monochrome)
kills windows upon tty i/o errors
use only some of the screen ($MGRSIZE in environment)
don't permit event stacking
audibly ring the bell
mgr input from the sun kbd, instead of stdin.
This permits redirection of console msgs to a window.
fractional character movement for proportional fonts
extended menu stuff (experimental)
movie making extension which logs all operations to a file for later replay -- not quite working under Linux
Emulate a missing middle mouse button by chording
The BITBLITFLAGS macro should contain
-DBANKED if you're trying
out the super VGA color.
C code for the static variables in the server containing icons and fonts is generated by a translator from icon and font files.
Not all the clients are compiled and installed by the Makefiles.
Clients found under
src/clients having capitalized names or
not compiled by the supplied Makefiles may have problems compiling
and/or running, but they may be interesting to hack on.
Most of the screen drivers found under the
libbitblit directory are
of mainly archeological interest. Grave robbing can be profitable.
At some point check that your
contain entries for MGR terminals such as found in the
directory. If all your software checks $TERMCAP in the environment,
this is not needed, as long as you run
in each window.
MGR works better if run setuid root, because it wants to chown ptys and write in the utmp file. This helps the ify iconifier client work better and the event passing mechanism be more secure. On Linux, root permissions are required in order to do in/out on the screen device. Otherwise, you decide whether to trust it.
In versions around 0.62 there are troubles on the Sun with using the csh as the default shell. Programs seem to run in a different process group than the foreground process group of the window's pty, in contradiction to man pages and posix specs. There is no trouble with bash, sh, or rc. Ideas why?
The only file required in an MGR installation is the server itself. That would give you terminal emulator windows with shells running in them and cutting and pasting with the mouse, but no nice clocks, extra fonts, fancy graphics, etc. Depending on options, a monochrome server needs about 200K of RAM plus dynamic space for windows, bitmaps, etc.
/usr/mgr/bin is in your PATH,
then just type "
mgr" to start up.
After enjoying the animated startup screen, press any key.
When the hatched background and mouse pointer appear, hold down
the left mouse button, highlight the "new window" menu item, and
release the button. Then drag the mouse from corner to corner
where you want a window to appear. The window will have your
default shell running in it. Hold down the left mouse button over
an existing window to see another menu for doing things to that
window. Left-clicking on an obscured window raises it to the top.
The menu you saw that pops-up over the empty background
includes the quit command.
For people with a two button mouse:
press both buttons together to emulate the missing middle button
used by some clients.
The quit submenu includes the "really quit" option, a suspend option which should only be used if you run a job-control shell, and a screen saver and locker option, which waits for you to type your login password when you come back to your machine.
When trying to run MGR, if you get:
make sure you have a
/dev entry for your display device,
/dev/bwtwo0. If not, as root cd to
/dev, and type
"MAKEDEV bwtwo0". Otherwise, you might need the
or (on Linux) the
-S640x480 command line option when starting
On Linux, you might also make sure that
installed setuid root.
/dev/mouse exists, usually as a symbolic link to the
real device name for your mouse. If you haven't permission to
/dev, then something like a
option can be
given when starting
mgr. Also, make sure you've supplied the
right mouse protocol choice when you configured
mgr. The mouse
may speak Microsoft, even if that is not the brand name.
make sure all of
are owned by root, mode 666,
and all programs referenced with the "shell" option in
.mgrc startup file (if any) exist and are executable.
make sure MGR is looking in the right
place for its fonts. Check the
Configfile in the source or
see whether a
-f/usr/mgr/font option to
mgr fixes the problem.
login to your machine from another terminal (or rlogin) and kill the
A buckey-Q key can quit MGR if the keyboard still works.
Any tty-oriented application can be run in an MGR window
without further ado. Screen-oriented applications using
termcap or curses can get the correct number of lines and
columns in the window by your using
to reshape the window or using
set_termcap(1) to obtain the correct termcap entry.
converts some BDF fonts to MGR fonts
an icon browser
bury this window
vi menus from C compiler errors
digital display of time of day
analog display of time of day
close this window, iconify
set the foreground and background color for text in this window
read or write in the color lookup table
change appearance of the character cursor
cut text from this window into the cut buffer
display a sequence of icons
crude ditroff previewer
fade a home movie script from one scene to another
change to a new font in this window
a groff to PBM driver using Hershey fonts
hp 2621 terminal emulator
animate an icosahedron or other polyhedron
notification of mail arrival
message arrival notification
iconify and deiconify windows
load a font from the file system
a maze game
micky mouse clock
create or select a pop-up menu
bellcore window system server and window manager
watch mailbox for mail and notify
graph of system load average
lock the console
graphical login controller
magnify a part of the screen, optionally dump to file
notification of mail arrival
set or clear window modes
message arrival notification
Unix "plot" graphics filter
browse through mgr fonts
a sketching/drawing program
view mgr bitmap images
start up less/more in separate window, menu added for less
startup up any program in a separate, independent window
display the current phase of the moon
start up vi in a separate window, with mouse pointing
(old) close a window
(old) notification of mail arrival
convert raw PBM/PGM/PPM image files to mgr bitmap format
split out a stream of bitmaps
printer output from PBM
ghostscript patch and front end, a PS viewer
a bitmap browser, or image viewer
cleanup window state after client crashes messily
rotate a bitmap 90 degrees.
write graphics screen dump to a bitmap file
redirect console messages to this window
output an appropriate TERM and TERMCAP setting
name a window, for messages and iconifying
reshape this window
square this window
compress mgr bitmap using run-length encoding
produce a skeleton startup file for current window layout
TeX dvi file previewer
convert between mgr font format and text dump
uncompress mgr bitmap using run length encoding
convert between mgr font format and VGA
print an image of a window
an icon editor
lisp/term/mgr.el mouse & menu support
universal scientific data plotting
font design and creation
portable bitmap format conversions, manipulations
slick scientific data plotting
The Emacs support in
includes very usable MIME support, via Rmail and metamail.
A general image viewer could be cobbled together from
and the netPBM filters, but I have not taken the time to do it.
The MGR programmers manual, the C language applications interface, is found in the doc directory in troff/nroff form. It covers general concepts, the function/macro calls controlling the server, a sample application, with an index and glossary.
Porting client code used with older versions of MGR sometimes requires the substitution of
and clients using old-style B_XOR, B_CLEAR, et al instead of BIT_XOR, BIT_CLR, et al can be accommodated by writing
#include <term.h> #include <dump.h>
#define OLDMGRBITOPS #include <mgr/mgr.h>
Compiling client code generally requires compiler options like the following.
-I/usr/mgr/include -L/usr/mgr/lib -lmgr
One can get some interactive feel for the MGR server functions by
reading and experimenting with the
mgr.el terminal driver for GNU
Emacs which implements the MGR interface library in ELisp.
The usual method of inquiring state from the server has the potential of stumbling on a race condition if the client also expects a large volume of event notifications. The problem arises if an (asynchronous) event notification arrives when a (synchronous) inquiry response was expected. If this arises in practice (unusual) then the MGR state inquiry functions would have to be integrated with your event handling loop.
The only major drawing function missing from the MGR protocol, it seems, is an area fill for areas other than upright rectangles. There is new code for manipulating the global colormap, as well as (advisory) allocation and freeing of color indices owned by windows.
If you are thinking of hacking on the server, you can find the mouse
the grotty parts of the keyboard
kbd.c, and the interface to the display in the
src/libbitblit/* directories. The main procedure, much
initialization, and the top level input loop are in
mgr.c, and the
interpretation of escape sequences is in
The programmer's manual is essential for concepts.
Nearly all the clients supplied come with a man page which is installed
Other useful man pages are
There is some ambiguity in the docs in distinguishing the
internal bitmap format found in your frame-buffer and the external
bitmap format found in files, e.g. icons.
mgr.1 man page covers command line options, commands in
~/.mgrc startup file, mouse and menu interaction with the server,
and hot-key shortcuts available on systems with such hot-keys.
Many of the fonts in
/usr/mgr/font/* are described to some
gives X-style font descriptions for the fonts obtained
in .bdf format. Font names end in
decimal width and height in pixels of each character box.
Stephen Uhler, with others working at Bellcore, was the original designer and implementer of MGR, so Bellcore has copyrighted much of the code and documentation for MGR under the following conditions.
* Permission is granted to copy or use this program, EXCEPT that it * may not be sold for profit, the copyright notice must be reproduced * on copies, and credit should be given to Bellcore where it is due.
One required showing of the copyright notice is the startup title screen.
Other credits to:
All bitmap fonts from any source are strictly public domain in the USA. The 583 fixed-width fonts supplied with MGR were obtained from Uhler, the X distribution, Yossi Gil, and elsewhere. The Hershey vector fonts and the code for rendering them are probably freely redistributable.